Lophyrotoma

Lophyrotoma Ashmead, 1898: 230. Type species: Pterygophorus interruptus Klug, by original designation.

Pterygophorinus Ashmead, 1898: 230. Type species: Pterygophorus analis O. Costa, by original designation. Synonymy by Smith, 1978: 149.

Platypsectra Benson, 1938a: 614, 618-622. Type species: Pterygophorus analis O. Costa, by original designation. Synonymy by Benson, 1958a: 15.

Citations

Rohwer 1911a [type information: 82, 103]; Benson 1938a [key, key to species, new taxon, revision/review: 614, 618-622]; Benson 1938c [systematics – classification: 382]; Quinlan 1974 [type information: 223]; Smith 1978 [catalogue/checklist, synonymy: 149-151]; Pagliano & Scaramozzino 1990 [catalogue/checklist: 117, 159]; Abe & Smith 1991 [synonymy, systematics – classification: 46, 67]; Pschorn-Walcher 1998 [behaviour, oviposition, sociality: 460].

Lophyrotoma analis (Costa)

Pterygophora analis Costa, 1864: 66. Type locality: Australia. Syntype, female. Type depository: IEUN. Described: female.

Pterygophorinus analis: Ashmead, 1898: 230. Change of combination.

Pterygophorus gaudialis Konow, 1907: 218, 219. Type locality: Australia. Syntype, male, female. Type depository: DEIC. Described: male, female. Synonymy by Rohwer, 1910: 469.

Platypsectra analis: Benson, 1938a: 620-621. Change of combination.

Pterygophorus cinctus: McKeown, 1944: 169-170. Misidentification.

Lophyrotoma analis: Benson, 1958a: 15. Change of combination.

Citations

Kirby 1882 [distribution record: 83]; Froggatt 1890c [catalogue/checklist: 695]; Dalla Torre 1894 [catalogue/checklist: 307]; Konow 1905a [distribution (range): 37]; Konow 1907 [description of female, key, new taxon: 219]; Rohwer1910 [catalogue/checklist, synonymy: 469]; Morice 1919 [distribution (range), illustration of female, key, synonymy, type information: 290, 293, pl. xii, fig. 10]; Forsius 1927 [distribution record: 284]; Forsius 1929a [distribution record: 81]; Benson 1938a [distribution (range), host plant, illustration of adult, illustration of female, key, revision/review: 613, 612, 620, 621]; McKeown 1944 [host plant: 169-170]; Smith 1978 [catalogue/checklist, host plant: 149-150]; Smith 1980b [distribution record: 335]; Muche 1986 [distribution record: 152]; Yeoh & Scott 1996 [biological control, host plant, impact/damage, life history: 162]; Scott & Shivas 1998 [distribution (range), host plant, seasonal distribution: 770]; Schulmeister 2003a [structure]; Schulmeister 2003b [illustration of male genitalia, structure]; Schmidt 2006 [catalogue/checklist, host plant, synonymy: 632]; Schmidt et al. 2006 [behaviour, communication, courtship behaviour, description of immature stages, development, distribution (range), host plant, host selection, illustration of adult, illustration of immature stages, laboratory studies, life history, mating, oviposition, pheromones, rearing, reproduction, seasonal distribution, structure: 174-182, 187, 189].

Distribution

Australasian: Australia (Capital Territory [Benson 1938a, Schmidt 2006, Schmidt et al. 2006], New South Wales [Kirby 1882, Benson 1938a, Schmidt 2006, Schmidt et al. 2006], Queensland [Benson 1938a, Smith 1978, Muche 1986, Smith 1980b, Schmidt 2006, Schmidt et al. 2006], South Australia [Kirby 1882, Benson 1938a, Schmidt 2006, Schmidt et al. 2006], Victoria [Forsius 1929a, Benson 1938a, Smith 1978, Schmidt 2006, Schmidt et al. 2006], Western Australia [Benson 1938a, Smith 1978, Yeoh & Scott 1996, Scott & Shivas 1998, Schmidt 2006, Schmidt et al. 2006]).

Associations

Hosts – POLYGONALES Polygonaceae: Emex australis Steinheil [Benson 1938a, Yeoh & Scott 1996, Scott & Shivas 1998, Schmidt 2006, Schmidt et al. 2006], Muehlenbeckia sp. [Yeoh & Scott 1996, Schmidt 2006], Rumex brownii Campd. [Schmidt 2006, Schmidt et al. 2006], Rumex sp. [Benson 1938a, Yeoh & Scott 1996, Schmidt 2006, Schmidt et al. 2006].

Lophyrotoma cibdeliformis Benson

Lophyrotoma cibdeliformis Benson, 1958a: 15-16. Type locality: Indonesia: Wisselmaren, Paniai, 1750 m. Holotype female, by original designation. Type depository: RMNH. Described: male, female. Illust.

Citations

Benson 1958a [diagnosis, distribution record, illustration of adult, illustration of genitalia, new taxon: 15-16]; Smith 1978 [catalogue/checklist: 150]; Smith 1980b [distribution record: 335]; Schmidt 2006 [catalogue/checklist: 632].

Distribution

Australasian: Indonesia (West Papua [Smith 1978, Smith 1980b, Schmidt 2006]).

Lophyrotoma cyanea (Leach)

Pterygophorus cyanea Leach, 1817: 119. Type locality: “Australasia”. Syntype male, female. Type depository: ANIC. Described: male, female.

Platypsectra cyanea: Benson, 1938a: 620. Change of combination.

Citations

Leach1817 [description, distribution (range): 119]; Lepeletier de Saint-Fargeau 1823 [diagnosis, distribution (range): 51]; Blanchard 1840 [description of adult, distribution (range): 231]; Kirby 1882 [distribution record: 81]; Froggatt 1890c [catalogue/checklist: 696]; Dalla Torre 1894 [catalogue/checklist: 308]; Konow 1905a [distribution (range): 37]; Konow 1907 [key: 218]; Morice 1919 [distribution (range), key, taxonomy: 292, 293]; Forsius 1927 [distribution record: 284]; Forsius 1929a [distribution record: 84]; Benson 1938a [distribution (range), key, revision/review: 620]; Leask 1944d [behaviour, biology, host plant: 2]; Naumann et al. 1994 [type information: 71]; Smith 1978 [catalogue/checklist, host plant: 150]; Smith 1980b [distribution record: 335]; Schmidt 2006 [catalogue/checklist, host plant: 632].

Distribution

Australasian: Australia (New South Wales [Benson 1938a, Smith 1978, Smith 1980b, Schmidt 2006], Victoria [Kirby 1882, Morice 1919, Forsius 1929a, Benson 1938a, Leask 1944d, Smith 1978, Schmidt 2006]).

Associations

Host – MYRTALES Myrtaceae: Eucalyptus radiata Sieber ex DC. [Leask 1944d, Schmidt 2006].

Lophyrotoma cygnus (Kirby)

Pterygophorus cygnus Kirby, 1882: 81. Type locality: Australia: Swan River, Western Australia. Holotype male, by monotypy and original designation. Type depository: BMNH. Described: male. Illust.

Platypsectra cygnus: Benson, 1938a: 619. Change of combination.

Lophyrotoma cygna: Benson, 1958a: 15. Change of combination.

Citations

Froggatt 1890c [catalogue/checklist: 696]; Dalla Torre 1894 [catalogue/checklist: 308]; Konow 1905a [distribution (range): 37]; Morice 1919 [distribution (range), key, type information: 292-293]; Forsius 1927 [distribution record: 284]; Benson 1938a [distribution (range), key, revision/review: 619]; Smith 1978 [catalogue/checklist: 150]; Schmidt 2006 [catalogue/checklist: 632].

Distribution

Australasian: Australia (Western Australia [Konow 1905a, Morice 1919, Benson 1938a, Smith 1978, Schmidt 2006]).

Lophyrotoma interrupta (Klug)

Pterygophorus interruptus Klug, 1814: 279-280. Type locality: Australia. Syntype, female. Type depository: ZMHB? Described: female. Illust.

Lophyrotoma interrupta: Ashmead, 1898: 230. Change of combination.

Pterygophorus analis: Froggatt, 1918: 671-672. Misidentification.

Pterygophorus analis: Froggatt, 1921: 268. Misidentification.

Pterygophorus analis: Tryon, 1921: 208-216. Misidentification; discovered by Smith, 1978: 150.

Pterygophorus interruptus var. queenslandicus Forsius, 1929a: 81-82. Type locality: Australia: Westwood, Queensland. Holotype male, by monotypy. Type depository: MVME. Described: male. Synonymy by Benson, 1938a: 619.

Pterygophorus analis: Roberts, 1932: 41. Misidentification.

Platypsectra interrupta: Benson, 1938a: 619. Change of combination.

Pterygophorus analis: McKeown, 1944: 169-170. Misidentification.

Citations

Klug 1814 [description of female, illustration of female: 279-280]; Leach1817 [description, distribution (range): 118-119]; Lepeletier de Saint-Fargeau 1823 [diagnosis, distribution (range): 50-51]; Blanchard 1840 [description of adult, distribution (range): 230]; Kirby 1882 [distribution record: 82]; Froggatt 1890c [catalogue/checklist: 696]; Dalla Torre 1894 [catalogue/checklist: 308]; Turner 1900 [distribution record, feeding: 517, 518]; Froggatt 1901 [common name, description: 8]; Konow 1905a [distribution (range): 37]; Froggatt 1907 [description of adult: 73]; Konow 1907 [key: 217]; Froggatt 1918 [behaviour, distribution record, host plant, impact/damage, seasonal distribution: 671-672]; Morice 1919 [distribution (range), key: 291, 293]; Tryon 1921 [description of adult, description of immature stages, illustration of adult, illustration of immature stages, economic importance, life history, seasonal distribution: 208-216]; Tillyard 1926 [behaviour: 265, pl. 21]; Forsius 1927 [distribution record: 284]; Forsius 1929a [distribution record, new taxon: 81-82]; Roberts 1932 [description of egg, description of female, description of immature stages, distribution (range), economic importance, host plant, illustration of female, illustration of immature stages, illustration of male, life history, seasonal distribution: 41-52]; Roberts 1937 [ecology, impact/damage: 141]; Benson 1938a [distribution (range), host plant, key, revision/review: 611, 612, 619]; Seddon 1940 [distribution (range), economic importance, host plant, impact/damage: 26]; McKeown 1944 [behaviour, description of adult, host plant, impact/damage: 169-170]; Roberts 1952 [control, description of immature stages, development, economic importance, host plant, illustration of adult, illustration of immature stages, impact/damage, life history: 29, 56-57]; Callow 1955 [description of adult, development, distribution (range), economic importance, host plant, illustration of male, illustration of adult, illustration of immature stages, life history, pest status: 155-161]; Oelrichs et al. 1977 [economic importance, host plant, impact/damage, laboratory studies, physiology: 209-214]; Smith 1978 [catalogue/checklist, host plant: 150]; Smith 1980b [illustration of lance/lancet, distribution record: 334, 335]; Oelrichs 1982 [behaviour, description of adult, description of immature stages, development, distribution (range), economic importance, host plant, impact/damage, life history, oviposition, physiology: 110-112]; Williams et al. 1983 [economic importance, laboratory studies, physiology: 1869-1983]; Dadswell et al. 1985 [control, economic importance, host plant, pest status: 94-97]; McKenzie et al. 1985b [behaviour, control, description of adult, description of immature stages, impact/damage, distribution (range), economic importance, host plant, life history, seasonal distribution]; Muche 1986 [distribution record: 152]; Kannan et al. 1988 [behaviour, impact/damage, physiology: 224-226]; Jones & Elliot 1990 [behaviour, control, description of adult, host plant, impact/damage: 176]; Schedl 1991 [behaviour, defence: 37, 47]; Macdonald & Ohmart 1993 [biology, common name: 490]; Elliott & Bashford 1995 [description of immature stages, feeding, host plant, illustration of adult, illustration of immature stages, development, economic importance, life history, mortality, oviposition, parasitism: 28-35]; Vilhelmsen 1996 [internal anatomy, musculature, structure]; Elliot et al. 1998 [behaviour, description of adult, description of immature stages, development, host plant, impact/damage: 82-83]; Oelrichs et al. 1998 [economic importance, laboratory studies, physiology: 515-520]; Oelrichs et al. 1999 [illustration of immature stages, physiology: 537-544]; Vilhelmsen 2000a [internal anatomy, musculature, structure]; Vilhelmsen 2000b [internal anatomy, phylogeny, structure]; Vilhelmsen 2000c [musculature, structure: 107, 108, 119-120, 126]; Schmidt 2006 [catalogue/checklist, host plant, synonymy: 632].

Distribution

Australasian: Australia (Capital Territory [Benson 1938a, Oelrichs 1982, Schmidt 2006], New South Wales [Froggatt 1890d, Morice 1919, Benson 1938a, Smith 1978, Smith 1980b, Oelrichs 1982, Schmidt 2006], Queensland [Turner 1900, Froggatt 1918, Morice 1919, Froggatt 1921, Forsius 1929a, Benson 1938a, Roberts 1952, Callow 1955, Smith 1978, Oelrichs 1982, Muche 1986, Schmidt 2006], South Australia [Smith 1978, Oelrichs 1982, Schmidt 2006], Tasmania [Kirby 1882, Morice 1919, Smith 1978, Oelrichs 1982, Elliott & Bashford 1995, Schmidt 2006], Victoria [Kirby 1882, Benson 1938a, Smith 1978, Oelrichs 1982, Schmidt 2006]).

Associations

Hosts – MYRTALES Myrtaceae: Angophora floribunda (Sm.) Sweet [Roberts 1952, McKenzie et al. 1985b, Schmidt 2006]. Corymbia gummifera (Gaertn.) K.D.Hill & L.A.S.Johnson [Roberts 1932],Corymbia maculata (Hook.) K.D.Hill & L.A.S.Johnson [Schmidt 2006], Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. [Roberts 1932, McKenzie et al. 1985b, Elliott & Bashford 1995, Schmidt 2006], Eucalyptus crebra F.Muell. [Froggatt 1918 (Only “ironbark” given as host plant, but Eucalyptus crebra is a common ironbark in the region where the larvae were found), Froggatt 1921, McKenzie et al. 1985b, Schmidt 2006], Eucalyptus grandis W.Hill [Elliott & Bashford 1995, Schmidt 2006], Eucalyptus intermedia R.T.Baker [Roberts 1932, Schmidt 2006], Eucalyptus melanophloia F.Muell. [Tryon 1921, Roberts 1932, Roberts 1952, Oelrichs et al. 1977, Oelrichs 1982, Dadswell et al. 1985, McKenzie et al. 1985b, Elliot et al. 1998, Schmidt 2006], Eucalyptus moluccana Roxb. [Roberts 1932, McKenzie et al. 1985b, Schmidt 2006], Eucalyptus nicholii Maiden & Blakely [Elliott & Bashford 1995, Schmidt 2006], Eucalyptus obliqua L’Her. [Elliott & Bashford 1995, Schmidt 2006], Eucalyptus ovata Labill. [Elliott & Bashford 1995, Schmidt 2006], Eucalyptus populnea F.Muell. [Roberts 1932, McKenzie et al. 1985b, Schmidt 2006], Eucalyptus siderophloia Benth. [Roberts 1932, McKenzie et al. 1985b, Schmidt 2006], Eucalyptus viminalis Labill. [Elliott & Bashford 1995, Schmidt 2006], Leptospermum sp. [Froggatt 1890d, Schmidt 2006]

Biology

Tryon (1921), Roberts (1932), Callow (1955), McKenzie et al. (1985), and Elliot et al. (1998) provided accounts of the biology of this cattle-poisoning sawfly and describe the damage caused by the larvae. Adults occur in the field from February to April. Females place eggs in rows of 12 or more into the leaf margin of their eucalypt hosts, apparently preferring young, well-formed leaves. The larvae hatch after about three weeks and feed initially side by side upon the edge of the leaf. Later the groups split up and last instar larvae usually feed independent of each other. The larvae feed during the day. When disturbed larvae lift their tailed abdomen. The prepupal moult occurs when larvae are still on the leaf before they leave the host tree and enter the ground for pupation. The single-walled cocoons are usually solitary, but in heavier soils aggregations can be observed. During outbreaks, larvae can be harmful to cattle. After having defoliated a tree larvae move downward and aggregate at the base of the trunk, exposed to the sun and high temperatures. In these situations larvae often die in large numbers and become very attractive to cattle to which they are highly toxic when ingested. In Tasmania mature larvae do not form aggregations and they often drop individually from the tree to find pupation sites (Elliot et al. 1998).

Lophyrotoma leachii (Kirby)

Pterygophorus leachii Kirby, 1882: 82. Type locality: Australia: Port Bowen, Queensland. Syntype, male, female. Type depository: BMNH. Described: male, female. Illust.

Platypsectra leachii: Benson, 1938a: 612, 620. Change of combination.

Lophyrotoma leachii: Benson, 1958a: 15. Change of combination.

Citations

Froggatt 1890c [catalogue/checklist: 696]; Dalla Torre 1894 [catalogue/checklist: 308]; Turner 1900 [distribution record, feeding, habitat: 517-518]; Konow 1905a [distribution (range): 37]; Konow 1907 [description of female, key: 218]; Morice 1919 [distribution (range), key, taxonomy, type information: 292, 293]; Benson 1938a [distribution (range), host plant, illustration of lance/lancet, key, revision/review: 612, 615, 620]; Smith 1978 [catalogue/checklist, host plant: 151]; Smith 1980b [distribution record: 335-336]; Schmidt 2006 [catalogue/checklist: 632].

Distribution

Australasian: Australia (Northern Territory [Smith 1980b, Schmidt 2006], Queensland [Turner 1900, Morice 1919, Benson 1938a, Smith 1978, Schmidt 2006]).

Biology

Adults caught mostly on species of Eucalyptus (Benson 1938a).

Lophyrotoma minuta Smith

Lophyrotoma minuta Smith, 1980b: 336. Type locality: Papua New Guinea: S Highlands, Dimifa SE of Mount Giluwe, 2200 m. Holotype female, by monotypy and original designation. Type depository: BPBM. Described: female. Illust.

Citations

Smith 1980b [illustration of female, illustration of lance/lancet, illustration of sawsheath: 332, 334, 336]; Schmidt 2006 [catalogue/checklist: 632].

Distribution

Australasian: Papua New Guinea [Smith 1980b, Schmidt 2006].

Lophyrotoma nacenta Smith

Lophyrotoma nacenta Smith, 1980b: 336-337. Type locality: Papua New Guinea: Port Moresby. Holotype female, by monotypy and original designation. Type depository: BPBM. Described: female. Illust.

Citations

Smith 1980b [illustration of female, illustration of lance/lancet, illustration of sawsheath: 332, 334, 336-337]; Schmidt 2006 [catalogue/checklist: 632].

Distribution

Australasian: Papua New Guinea [Smith 1980b, Schmidt 2006].

Lophyrotoma nigripes (Benson)

Platypsectra nigripes Benson, 1938a: 621-622. Type locality: Australia: Studley Park, Victoria. Holotype female, by monotypy. Type depository: MVME. Described: female.

Citations

Benson 1938a [distribution record, key, revision/review: 620, 621-622]; Quinlan 1974 [type information: 244]; Smith 1978 [catalogue/checklist: 151]; Schmidt 2006 [catalogue/checklist: 632].

Distribution

Australasian: Australia (Victoria [Smith 1978, Schmidt 2006]).

Lophyrotoma opima (Konow)

Pterygophorus opimus Konow, 1908: 83. Type locality: Australia: New South Wales. Syntype, female. Type depository: DEIC. Described: female.

Platypsectra opima: Benson, 1938a: 620. Change of combination.

Lophyrotoma opima: Benson, 1958a: 15. Change of combination.

Citations

Benson 1938a [distribution (range), illustration of lance/lancet, key, revision/review: 611, 615, 620]; Smith 1978 [catalogue/checklist: 151]; Schmidt 2006 [catalogue/checklist: 632].

Distribution

Australasian: Australia (New South Wales [Konow1908, Smith 1978, Schmidt 2006], Victoria [Benson 1938a, Smith 1978, Schmidt 2006]).

Lophyrotoma ramosa (Benson)

Platypsectra ramosa Benson, 1938a: 622. Type locality: Australia: Melbourne, S Yarra, Victoria. Holotype female, by original designation. Type depository: BMNH. Described: female. Illust.

Lophyrotoma ramosa: Benson, 1958a: 15. Change of combination.

Citations

Benson 1938a [distribution (range), illustration of lance/lancet, revision/review: 615, 620, 621, 622]; Quinlan 1974 [type information: 244]; Smith 1978 [catalogue/checklist: 151]; Schmidt 2006 [catalogue/checklist: 632].

Distribution

Australasian: Australia (Victoria [Smith 1978, Schmidt 2006]).

Lophyrotoma towenda Smith

Lophyrotoma towenda Smith, 1980b: 337-338. Type locality: Papua New Guinea: E Highlands, Purosa, 1700 m. Holotype female, by original designation. Type depository: BPBM. Described: male, female. Illust.

Citations

Smith 1980b [illustration of female, illustration of lance/lancet, illustration of male genitalia, illustration of sawsheath: 332, 337-338, 340]; Schmidt 2006 [catalogue/checklist: 632].

Distribution

Australasian: Indonesia (West Papua [Smith 1980b, Schmidt 2006]); Papua New Guinea [Smith 1980b, Schmidt 2006].

Lophyrotoma uniformis (Kirby)

Pterygophorus uniformis Kirby, 1894: 46. Type locality: Australia: Mackay, Queensland. Syntype, male, female. Type depository: BMNH. Described: male, female.

Platypsectra uniformis: Benson, 1938a: 612, 620. Change of combination.

Lophyrotoma uniformis: Benson, 1958a: 15. Change of combination.

Citations

Turner 1900 [distribution record, habitat, host plant, seasonal distribution: 517, 518]; Rohwer1910 [catalogue/checklist, synonymy: 469]; Morice 1919 [distribution (range), illustration of female, illustration of lance/lancet, illustration of male, key, type information: 290, 293, pl. xi, fig. 12, pl. xii, figs 8, 9, 17, pl. xiii, fig. 11]; Forsius 1927 [distribution record: 284]; Benson 1938a [distribution record, host plant, key, revision/review: 612, 620]; Smith 1978 [catalogue/checklist: 151]; Schmidt 2006 [catalogue/checklist, host plant: 632].

Distribution

Australasian: Australia (Queensland [Turner 1900, Morice 1919, Benson 1938a, Smith 1978, Schmidt 2006]).

Biology

Larvae feed on creeper in rainforest (Benson 1938a).

Lophyrotoma zimba Smith

Lophyrotoma zimba Smith, 1980b: 338-339. Type locality: Papua New Guinea: Morobe District, Aseki, 1 km SE, 1260 m. Holotype female, by monotypy and original designation. Type depository: BPBM. Described: female. Illust.

Citations

Smith 1980b [illustration of female, illustration of lance/lancet: 332, 334, 338-339]; Schmidt 2006 [catalogue/checklist: 632].

Distribution

Australasian: Papua New Guinea [Smith 1980b, Schmidt 2006].

Lophyrotoma zonalis (Rohwer)

Pterygophorus zonalis Rohwer, 1910: 470-471. Type locality: Australia: Mackay, Queensland. Holotype female, by original designation. Type depository: BMNH. Described: female.

Platypsectra zonalis: Benson, 1938a: 618. Change of combination.

Lophyrotoma zonalis: Benson, 1958a: 15. Change of combination.

Citations

Morice 1919 [distribution (range), key, taxonomy, type information: 291-292]; Benson 1938a [distribution (range), key, revision/review: 611, 618]; Smith 1978 [catalogue/checklist: 151]; Smith 1980b [distribution record: 336]; Balciunas 1990 [biological control, development, distribution (range), host plant, illustration of immature stages, life history, reproduction, seasonal distribution]; Balciunas & Burrows 1993 [biological control, description of immature stages, host plant, distribution (range), illustration of female, illustration of immature stages, laboratory studies, life history, oviposition, parasitism rates: 1-16]; Macdonald & Ohmart 1993 [biological control, development, host plant, laboratory studies: 500]; Burrows & Balciunas 1997 [behaviour, biological control, development, economic importance, host plant, host selection, laboratory studies, life history, mortality, oviposition, parasitism, parasitism rates, seasonal distribution: 299-311]; Wood 1997 [biological control, illustration of female, illustration of immature stages: 5-7]; Buckingham 1998 [behaviour, biological control, description of adult, development, distribution (range), experimental host, host plant, life history, laboratory studies, oviposition, parasitism rates: 1-43]; Buckingham 2001 [behaviour, biochemical control, development, host plant, impact/damage, oviposition: 363-386]; Oelrichs et al. 2001 [host plant, laboratory studies, physiology: 1933-1936]; Rayamajhi et al. 2002 [biological control, host plant, laboratory studies: 121, 122, 124-125]; Schmidt 2006 [catalogue/checklist, host plant: 633].

Distribution

Australasian: Australia (Northern Territory [BalciuBu1990, Burrows & Balciunas 1997, Buckingham 1998, Schmidt 2006], Queensland [Morice 1919, Benson 1938a, Smith 1978, Balciunas & Burrows 1993, Burrows & Balciunas 1997, Buckingham 1998, Schmidt 2006]); Papua New Guinea [Smith 1980b, Buckingham 1998, Schmidt 2006].

Associations

Foes – DIPTERA Tachinidae: Anagonia sp. [Balciunas & Burrows 1993, Buckingham 1998], Apatemyia sp. [Balciunas & Burrows 1993, Burrows & Balciunas 1997, Buckingham 1998]. HYMENOPTERA Eulophidae: Australsecodes sp. [Balciunas & Burrows 1993, Burrows & Balciunas 1997, Buckingham 1998],Chrysonotomyia sp. [Balciunas & Burrows 1993, Burrows & Balciunas 1997, Buckingham 1998]. Ichneumonidae: Aprix sp. [Burrows & Balciunas 1997, Buckingham 1998]. Tachinidae:Froggattimyia sp. [Balciunas & Burrows 1993, Burrows & Balciunas 1997, Buckingham 1998]. Hosts – MYRTALES Myrtaceae: Melaleuca dealbata S.T. Blake [Balciunas & Burrows 1993, Burrows & Balciunas 1997, Schmidt 2006], Melaleuca leucadendra (L.) L. [Balciunas 1990, Balciunas & Burrows 1993, Burrows & Balciunas 1997, Buckingham 1998, Schmidt 2006], Melaleuca quinquenervia (Cav.) S.T.Blake [Balciunas 1990, Balciunas & Burrows 1993, Macdonald & Ohmart 1993, Burrows & Balciunas 1997, Buckingham 1998, Schmidt 2006], Melaleuca viridiflora Sol. ex Gaertn. [Buckingham 1998].

Biology

Host plant preferences of L. zonalis seem to vary with locality and season but Melaleuca leucadendra and M. quinquenervia seem to be the preferred hosts (Balciunas 1990).

Lophyrotoma sp.

Citations

Smith 1980b [distribution record: 339].

Distribution

Australasian: Papua New Guinea [Smith 1980b].

Lophyrotoma sp. nr leachi (Kirby)

Citations

Leask 1943 [distribution record: 2] (as Platypsectra).

Distribution

Australasian: Papua New Guinea [Leask 1943].