Polyclonus

Polyclonus Kirby, 1882: 97. Type species: Polyclonus atratus Kirby, by monotypy.

Ancyloneura: Konow, 1905a: 40. Incorrect synonymy (synonym ofAncyloneura); discovered by Rohwer, 1918: 439.

Cladomacra: Konow, 1907: 174-176. Incorrect synonymy (Ancyloneura and Cladomacra congeneric with Polyclonus); discovered by Forsius, 1927: 288.

Polyclonus: Rohwer, 1918: 439. Revived status.

Citations

Ashmead 1898 [key: 226, 227]; Konow 1903b [systematics – classification: 162]; Rohwer 1911a [type information: 87]; Rohwer 1918 [systematics – classification, taxonomy: 439]; Morice 1919 [key: 257]; Rohwer 1922 [key: 91]; Benson 1938b [key, systematics – classification: 358, 359]; Benson 1938c [illustration of adult, systematics – classification: 374, 382]; Benson & Conde 1938 [description, systematics – classification: 121-122]; Benson 1963 [diagnosis, key: 81]; Smith 1978 [catalogue/checklist: 156]; Pagliano & Scaramozzino 1990 [catalogue/checklist: 34, 62, 162]; Abe & Smith 1991 [systematics – classification: 68]; Schmidt & Brown 2005 [key, systematics – classification: 6, 7].

[wpanchor id=”atratus”]

Polyclonus atratus Kirby

Polyclonus atratus Kirby, 1882: 97. Type locality: Australia. Holotype male, by monotypy and original designation. Type depository: BMNH. Described: male. Illust.

Ancyloneura atrata: Konow, 1905a: 40. Change of combination.

Citations

Froggatt 1890c [catalogue/checklist, distribution (range): 696]; Dalla Torre 1894 [catalogue/checklist: 307]; Froggatt 1901 [description: 9]; Froggatt 1907 [description of adult: 73]; Rohwer 1918 [description of female: 439]; Forsius 1927 [distribution record, systematics – classification, taxonomy: 284, 288]; Moore 1957 [behaviour, biology, description of female, description of egg, description of immature stages, development, distribution (range), feeding, habitat, host plant, illustration of female, illustration of immature stages, illustration of lance/lancet, illustration of male, life history, oviposition, parasitism, seasonal distribution: 74-81]; Benson 1963 [key]; Moore 1972 [host plant: 33]; Smith 1978 [catalogue/checklist, host plant: 156]; Smith 1980b [distribution record: 341]; Schmidt 2006 [catalogue/checklist, host plant: 628].

Distribution

Australasian: Australia (Capital Territory [Schmidt 2006], New South Wales [Moore 1957, Smith 1978, Schmidt 2006], Queensland [Moore 1957, Smith 1980b, Schmidt 2006], Victoria [Rohwer 1918, Moore 1957, Schmidt 2006], Western Australia? [Moore 1957, Schmidt 2006]).

Associations

Hosts – MYRTALES Myrtaceae: Angophora costata (Gaertn.) Britten [Moore 1957, Schmidt 2006], Angophora intermedia de Candolle [Moore 1957, Schmidt 2006], Eucalyptus acmenoides Schauer [Moore 1957, Schmidt 2006], Eucalyptus grandis W.Hill [Moore 1972, Schmidt 2006], Eucalyptus haemastoma Sm. [Moore 1957, Schmidt 2006], Eucalyptus pilularis Sm. [Moore 1957, Schmidt 2006], Eucalyptus resinifera Sm. [Moore 1957, Schmidt 2006],Eucalyptus saligna Sm. [Moore 1957, Moore 1972, Schmidt 2006].

Biology

Moore (1957) gave a detailed account of the biology. Larvae are saprophagous and feed on dying or dead leaves of eucalypts which they skeletonise. Females oviposit in eucalypt leaves or in grass blades in close proximity to suitable food for larvae. The life cycle lasts, depending on temperature conditions, from 3 to 6 months. In the study area near Sydney, adults are on the wing from August to May. Males and females can be seen flying among leaves of felled trees, with females closer to the ground than the males. Females feign death when disturbed. Eggs are placed into the leaf margin in rows of up to 30. Larvae hatch after 1-2 weeks and feed mostly at night, but also during the day on cloudy days. The black cocoons are attached to sticks, rocks, rotten leaves, etc. The species is polyvoltine.