Syzygonia

Syzygonia Klug, 1824: 177-178. Type species: Syzygonia cyanocephala Klug. Subsequently designated by Ashmead, 1898: 230.

Sizygonia: Brullé, 1846: 671. Misspelling of genus name.

Syzygonidea Ashmead, 1898: 230. Type species: Syzygonia cyanea Brullé, by original designation. Synonymy by Smith, 1978: 172.

Bergiana Konow, 1899c: 397-399. Type species: Syzygonia cyanocephala Klug, by original designation. Synonymy by Rohwer, 1911a: 102.

Citations

Latreille 1829 [diagnosis, distribution (range): 272]; Klug 1834 [diagnosis: 229]; Brullé 1846 [diagnosis, distribution (range): 671, pl. 48, fig. 2]; Cameron 1878a [distribution (range), systematics – classification: 2, 3, 5]; Cameron 1881 [taxonomy: 563]; Kirby 1882 [systematics – classification: 31-32]; Konow 1905a [description, distribution (range), key, systematics – classification: 3, 10-11]; Rohwer 1911a [key to genera, taxonomy, type information: 75, 90, 101-102, 104]; Benson 1938c [systematics – classification: 381]; Smith 1978 [catalogue/checklist: 172]; Pagliano & Scaramozzino 1990 [catalogue/checklist: 48, 183, 191]; Smith 1990 [diagnosis, key, taxonomy: 97, 100-101]; Abe & Smith 1991 [synonymy, systematics – classification: 13, 78-79, 83]; Smith 1995b [illustration of adult: 161]; Pschorn-Walcher 1998 [behaviour, oviposition, sociality: 460].

Syzygonia cyanocephala Klug

Syzygonia cyanocephala Klug, 1824: 180. Type locality: Brazil. Syntype, female. Type depository: ZMHB. Described: female.

Syzygonia aenea Perty, 1830: 130. Type locality: Brazil: Piauí. Syntype, male. Type depository: ZSMG. Described: male. Illust. Synonymy by Smith, 1978: 172.

Sizygonia cyanea: Brullé, 1846: pl. 48, fig. 2. Misspelling of genus name. Caption of plate under figure is cyanea, but in legends for figures, Brullé stated that it should be cyanocephala (“par erreur sur la planche”).

Syzygonidea cyanea: Ashmead, 1898: 230. Change of combination. “S. cyanea Brullé” cited as type species of Syzygonidea ; no further description.

Bergiana cyanocephala: Konow, 1899b: 397-399. Change of combination.

Parasyzygonia aenea: Rohwer, 1911a: 102. Change of combination.

Citations

Klug 1834 [diagnosis, distribution record, illustration of female: 299, pl. II]; Brullé 1846 [illustration of adult: pl. 48, fig. 2]; Kirby 1882 [distribution (range): 32]; Dalla Torre 1894 [catalogue/checklist: 348]; Konow 1905a [distribution (range): 10, 11]; Enderlein 1919 [distribution record: 113]; Mallach 1929 [key: 288]; Conde 1932 [distribution record, illustration of lance/lancet: 437, 439]; Azevedo Marques 1933 [biology, description of egg, description of female, description of immature stages, development, habitat, host plant, illustration of female, illustration of immature stages, illustration of lance/lancet, life history, oviposition: 1-11]; Monte 1941 [distribution record, host plant: 145]; Costa Lima 1968 [distribution (range), host plant: 622]; Smith 1978 [catalogue/checklist, host plant: 172]; Smith 1990 [biology, host plant, illustration of adult, illustration of female, illustration of lance/lancet, illustration of male, illustration of male genitalia, illustration of sawsheath, taxonomy: 94, 95, 101]; Smith 1993 [economic importance: 11]; Vilhelmsen 1996 [musculature, phylogeny, structure]; Pschorn-Walcher 1998 [behaviour, defence, sociality: 464]; Vilhelmsen 2000a [internal anatomy, musculature, structure]; Vilhelmsen 2000b [internal anatomy, phylogeny, structure]; Vilhelmsen 2000c [musculature, structure]; Smith 2006 [catalogue/checklist, host plant, synonymy: 617].

Distribution

Neotropical: Argentina [Smith 1978]; Brazil [Klug 1834, Konow195a] (Minas Geraís [Monte 1941, Costa Lima 1968, Smith 1978, Smith 1990, Smith 2006], Piauí [Kirby 1882, Smith 1978, Smith 1990, Smith 2006], Rio Grande do Sul [Smith 1990, Smith 2006], Rio de Janeiro [Enderlein 1919, Smith 1978, Smith 1990, Smith 2006], Santa Catarina [Smith 1990, Smith 2006], São Paulo [Conde 1932, Smith 1978, Smith 1990, Smith 2006]).

Associations

Hosts – MYRTALES Melastomataceae: Tibouchina mutabilis (Vell.) Cogn. [Azevedo Marques 1933, Costa Lima 1968, Smith 2006],Tibouchina sp. [Monte 1941, Costa Lima 1968]

Biology

The species is biologically similar to species of Philomastix . The female attaches clusters of eggs to the midrib of the leaf and guards eggs and offspring (Azevedo Marques 1933). The gregarious larvae resemble larvae of Philomastix spp., in particular the two caudal appendages are very similar in both groups.